Even before the start of the war, Russian science was going through a mixed phase. On the one hand, some scientists returned to Russia after the crisis in the 1990s. In 2010, the Scientific and Technological Innovation Center “Skolkovo” was established in the Moscow region and advertised as Russia’s Silicon Valley. On the other hand, funding for science remained at a low level: in 2021, spending on science amounted to one percent of Russia’s gross domestic product. In Germany, more than three percent of GDP is spent on research and development every year.