When the Berlin Wall fell on November 9, 1989, it was due in part to newly issued regulations on travel. As protests had escalated in communist East Berlin, the government responded by easing some border restrictions. Though the changes were intended to have only a negligible effect on travel, the public announcement misrepresented them as opening the border. Locals turned up at the wall in droves, overwhelming the guards, who eventually had to open the checkpoints. The rest, as they say, is history.
In the 30 years since, Berlin’s evolution—from Soviet stronghold to libertine bastion with an anything-goes creativity born from repression—has made it one of the most captivating places on the planet. More recently Berlin has catapulted to the center of European power, led a countrywide push to welcome more than a million asylum seekers, and shown the world how a city can grow up without losing its edge.
“The difference between a place like New York and Berlin is that New York is settled, while Berlin is seething,” says photographer Harald Hauswald, whose images of East Berlin in November 1989 captured a state poised to topple as residents took sledgehammers to the wall.
“Berlin is still a never ending start-up,” he says. “That’s what makes it beautiful.” Here are seven ways to explore the German capital.
Time travel back to the Cold War
Today the best known places to meet Berlin’s Cold War ghosts are also among its most touristy haunts: the East Side Gallery, where a mural-clad stretch of the Berlin Wall remains, and Checkpoint Charlie (skip the latter). To understand the magnitude of how this barrier came to cleave families, a city, and two worlds, head to the nearly mile-long outdoor Berlin Wall Memorial, where escape tunnels are marked, a shoot-to-kill watchtower in the wall’s former “Death Strip” still stands, and a memorial honors those who died trying to flee the East.
Next to the Friedrichstrasse subway, historical videos and the original passport control booths at the Tränenpalast (“palace of tears”) border crossing station show where East Berliners said goodbye to loved ones returning to the West. At the infamous Stasi Prison, former inmates now lead tours and offer harrowing accounts of how East Germany’s secret police used surveillance and scare tactics to exert control.
Visit Prussian palaces
Berlin’s history is not all dark and heavy. For proof, make a visit to Schloss Charlottenburg, a baroque beauty inspired by Versailles. Set amid manicured gardens, a carp pond, and an ensemble of rococo palaces, this 18th-century castle stands as a reminder of Berlin’s proud Prussian past.
Just a 40-minute S-Bahn ride away, the city of Potsdam is a vast UNESCO World Heritage site (the largest in Germany) encompassing 150 buildings across 1,200 acres. Be sure to see the crown jewels of Frederick the Great’s summer stomping grounds: Neues Palais and Schloss Sanssouci.
View walls as artwork
Known as Europe’s most “bombed” (graffiti-marked) city, Berlin was named a UNESCO City of Design in part because of its wildly creative street art. The East Side Gallery, with 101 murals splashed across a still standing section of the Berlin Wall, is the world’s largest and longest open-air gallery. Urban Nation’s newly opened Museum for Urban Contemporary Art uses mobile facades to transform the building’s architecture and exterior walls into canvases themselves. For an eye-catching barrage of makeshift murals, head to Mitte’s Haus Schwarzenberg.
Opt for the outdoors
With more than 2,500 parks, Berlin ranks as one of the world’s greenest capitals. Its idyllic centerpiece is the Tiergarten, a former Prussian hunting ground now filled with lakes, jogging trails, and rose gardens. An airport built by the Nazis—which became a lifeline for West Berlin during the 1948-49 blockade—Tempelhofer Feld now serves as a public park where cyclists speed down the runways. And on sunny days, there’s no better place to people-watch than the Landwehr Canal, which winds for more than six miles through the heart of the city.